Suggested Further Reading

Building Conservation: Technical resources online:

Association for Preservation Technology International Building Technology Heritage Library

Council on Training in Architectural Conservation (COTAC) digital bibliography

Getty Conservation Institute online resources from the Conserving Modern Architecture Initiative

Historic England Technical Guidance

Historic Environment Scotland Building Conservation Publications The Engine Shed

ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Modern Heritage

20th Century Society

Carnegie Libraries UK: History resources online:

Blaikie, G. 2002–2011. Carnegie Libraries of Scotland. (apparently no longer) available at:

Builder, The. 1909. See available digital content: The Builder.

Building News, 1857- London. See available digital content: Building News

Carnegie Collections held at the the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University:

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP), 1919. A Manual of the Public Benefactions of Andrew Carnegie. Concord: Rumford Press, 1919. Available at: [accessed 3 May 2011]

Chandler, J. Blog:

Dictionary of Scottish Architects

Public Library buildings history UK

Adams, M.B. 1905 Public Libraries, Their Buildings and Equipment: A Plea for State Aid. R.I.B.A. Journal, vol XII Third Series (no. 25), 262–80.

Adams, W.G.S., and Trust Carnegie United Kingdom. 1915. A Report on Library Provision & Policy by W.G.S. Adams to the Carnegie United Kingdom Trustees. Edinburgh: Neill and Co.

Brawne, M. 1970. Libraries: Architecture and Equipment. London: Pall Mall Press.

Brown, J.D. 1903. Manual of Library Economy. London: Scott, Greenwood & co.

Brown, J.D. 1907. Library Planning as Affected by Modern Library Policy and Interior Arrangements. The Architectural Journal (The RIBA Journal) XIV third series, no. 23rd March 1907, 347–52.

Burgoyne, F.J. 1897. Library Construction: Architecture, Fittings and Furniture. London: George Allen.

Champneys, A.L. 1907. Public Libraries: A Treatise on Their Design, Construction, and Fittings, with a Chapter on the Principles of Planning, and a Summary of the Law. London: B. T. Batsford.

Champneys, B. 1902. The Design of Libraries. Architectural Review, XI. (January).

Clark, J.W. 1900. The Care of Books: Four Lectures Delivered at Cambridge Lent Term, 1900. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Cotgreave, Alfred. Views & Memoranda of Public Libraries. London: Library aids co, 1901.

Cox, A. 1905. Public Libraries – paper read at Architectural Association AGM Tufton Street Westminster. The Builder. 14 January, 41–44.

Department for Culture Media and Sport, (DCMS), 2001. Libraries, Museums, Galleries and Archives for All: Co-Operating Across the Sectors to Tackle Social Exclusion, London: DCMS.

Delessert, B.J.P. 1835. Mémoire sur la Bibliothèque royale, où l’on indique les mesures à prendre pour la transférer dans un bâtiment circulaire. Paris: Imprimerie de H. Dupuy.

Edwards, E. 1859. Memoirs of Libraries: including a Handbook of Library Economy. London: Trubner & Co.

Fletcher, W.I. 1889. Library Buildings. The Library Journal 14, Jan–Feb 1889: 39–40.

Fletcher, W.I. 1890. The Proper Lighting of Library Rooms. American Library Association Conference, 9–11. American Library Journal.

Goodenough, S. 1985. The Greatest Good Fortune: Andrew Carnegie’s Gift for Today. Edinburgh Macdonald.

Greenhough, W.H. 1890. On the Ventilation, Heating and Lighting of Free Public Libraries. Library s1–2, no. 1 (1890): 421–33.

Greenslade, S.K. 1902. The Planning of Some Recent Library Buildings in the United States Paper Read 17.3.02. RIBA Journal IX (1902): 229–78.

Greenwood, T Public Libraries, 1891. 4th Ed. London: Cassell & Co.

Greenwood, T. 1902. Edward Edwards the Chief Pioneer of Municipal Public Libraries. London: Scott, Greenwood and Co.

Grimes, B. 1998. Irish Carnegie Libraries: A Catalogue and Architectural History. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.

Hare, H.T. 1907. Public Libraries. The Architectural Journal (The RIBA Journal) XIV, no. 10 (1907): 341–57.

Robertson, W. 1964. Welfare in Trust: A History of the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, 1913–1963. Dunfermline: Carnegie United Kingdom Trust.

Thompson, A. 1963. Library Buildings of Britain and Europe: An International Study, with Examples Mainly from Britain and Some from Europe and Overseas, London: Butterworths.

Tweedale, G. 2004. Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919). In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

History of Public and Carnegie Libraries in the United States

Allen, W.C., Library buildings, Library Trends 25 (1) (July 1976), pp. 89-112.

Baumann, C., The influence of Angus Snead Macdonald and the Snead bookstack on library architecture (Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow, 1972).

Beckman, M., Langmead, S. and Black, J. The best gift: a record of Carnegie libraries in Ontario (Toronto: Dunburn Press, 1984).

Bial, R. and Bial, L., The Carnegie libraries in Illinois (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991).

Bobinski, G. Carnegie libraries: their history and impact on American public library development (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969).

Bostwick, A.E. 1910. The American Public Library. New York and London: D. Appleton and company.

Breisch, K. American libraries 1730-1950 (New York and London: Norton, 2017), pp. 241-280.

Breisch, K.A. Henry Hobson Richardson and the small public library in America: a study in typology (Cambridge Massachussets: MIT Press, 1997).

Brett, W., Access to the shelves in the Cleveland Public Library, The Library Journal, 16 (San Francisco Conference No., 1891), pp. 34-35.

Brett, W., Re-arrangement of the Cleveland Public Library, The Library Journal, 5 (May 1890), pp. 136-137.

Eastman, W., Library buildings, Library Journal, 26 (8) (August 1901), pp. 38-43.

Elmborg, J. and Pawley, C., Historical research as critical practice and relationship: the ‘Carnegie Libraries in Iowa Project’, Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 44 (3-4) (Summer & Fall 2003), pp. 235-245.

Felsenstein, F. and Connolly, J., What Middletown read: print culture in an American small city (Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015).

Fiftieth anniversary, 1875-1925: Free Public Library of Decatur (Decatur: Decatur Public Library, 1925).

Gardiner, A., The Carnegie legacy in Kansas (Topeka: Kansas State Library, 1985).

Green, B., Planning and construction of library buildings, Library Journal, 25 (11) (November 1900), pp. 677-683.

Hinton, D. Paxton Carnegie Library: 100th anniversary, 1904-2004 (Paxton, IL: Paxton Carnegie Library, 2004).

Johnson, A.V. A Report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York on the policy donations to free public libraries (New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1919).

Jones, T. Carnegie libraries across America: a public legacy (New York: Wiley, 1997).

Kapp, P., et al., Paxton Carnegie Library: Historic American Building Survey (Washington DC: US department of the Interior, 2012),

Knott, C. Not free, not for all: libraries in the age of Jim Crow (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015).

Koch, T.W. 1907. A Portfolio of Carnegie Libraries. 1st ed. Michigan: George Wahr.

Koch, T., A book of Carnegie Libraries (New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1917).

Krass, P., Carnegie (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, 2002).

Krause, P.L. 1988. Patronage and Philanthropy in Industrial America: Andrew Carnegie and the Free Library in Braddock, Pa. Western Pennsylvania History, Volume 71, (no. 2), 127–46.

Kruty, P., Patton and Miller: designers of Carnegie libraries, The Palimpsest [Iowa] 64 (4) (July/August 1983), pp. 110-122.

Learned, W.S. 1924. The American Pubilc Library and the Diffusion of Knowledge. 1 ed. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company.

List of Carnegie Libraries in the USA, Wikipedia (21 February 2020),

Lorenzen, M., Deconstructing the Carnegie libraries: the sociological reasons behind Carnegie’s millions to public libraries, Illinois Libraries, 81 (2) (1999), pp. 75-78.

Macleod, D., Carnegie libraries in Wisconsin (New York: Amo Press, 1968).

Miller, D., Carnegie grants for library buildings 1890-1917 (New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1946).

Munthe, W., Modern American library buildings, Library Association Record, 2 (3rd series) (1932), pp. 238-244, 283-290, 341-346, 371-379.

Oehlerts, D.E. 1991. Books and Blueprints: Building America’s Public Libraries, Contributions in Librarianship and Information Science. New York: Greenwood Press.

Overall, W.H. 1877. On Library Buildings. Paper presented at the American Library Association Conference, 1877. American Library Journal 2 (1877): 251–255.

Patton, N.S. 1889. Architects and Librarians. Paper presented at the American Library Association Conference, St Louis 1889. American Library Journal, 14, 1889: 160–162.

Pendleton, A.M. 1876. How to Start Libraries in Small Towns. American Library Journal 1, no. 9 (1876): 4.

Pepper, S. 2006. Storehouses of Knowledge: the free library movement and the birth of modern library architecture, in The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, Vol 3 1850–2000.edited by A. Black and P. Hoare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Poole, W.F. 1879. Library Buildings. American Library Association Conference. Philadelphia: American Library Journal 3 (1879): 293

Poole, W. Small library buildings, Library Journal, 10 (9-10) (1885), pp. 250-256.

Poole, W. Remarks on library construction (Chicago: Jansen McClurg and Co., 1884).

Poole, W., The construction of library buildings, Library Journal 6 (4) (April 1881), pp. 69-77.

Poole, W.F. 1881a. Librarians Vs. Architects. American Architect 10, no. 17 September (1881): 131–4.

Poole, W.F. 1881 Progress of Library Architecture. Paper presented at the American Library Association Conference, Cincinnati 1882. American Library Journal 7 (1882): 130–131.

Richards, S.L., The building of Carnegie libraries in South Dakota, South Dakota History, 20 (1) (Spring 1990), pp. 1-16.

Rogers, A., Library buildings, in S.J. Jackson, E.B. Herling and E.J. Josey (eds.), A century of service: librarianship in the United States and Canada (Chicago: American Library Association, 1976), pp. 221-242.

Standiford, L. 2006. Meet You in Hell: Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, and the Bitter Partnership That Changed America: Random House Inc.

Schlipf, F. Remodeling and expanding Carnegie-era library buildings, Library Trends, 62 (3) (Winter 2014), pp. 556-580.

Snead and Company Iron Works, Library planning, bookstacks and shelving, with contributions from the architects’ and librarians’ point of view (Jersey City, New Jersey, 1915).

Smithmeyer, J.L. 1887. The Requirements of a Large Library Building. Inland Architect and News Record X, no. October (1887).

Snape, R. 2006 Libraries for Leisure Time. in The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, Vol 3 1850–2000, edited by A. Black and P. Hoare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Soule, C., Boston Public Library, Library Journal, 17 (2-4) (February-April 1892), pp. 54-55, 88-93, 124-125.

Soule, C., How to plan a library building for library work (Boston: Boston Book Club, 1912).

Soule, C., Points of agreement among librarians as to library architecture, Library Journal, 16 (12) (December 1991), pp. 17-19.

Soule, C., Modern library buildings, Architectural Review [Boston], 9 (1) (January 1902), pp. 1-7.

T.W. Koch, A book of Carnegie libraries (New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1917).

United States Bureau of Education, On library construction (Bureau of Education Circular of Information No. 1, 1881).

Van Brunt, H. 1879. Library Buidlings. Paper presented at the American Library Association Conference, Philadelphia 1879. American Library Journal 4, no 7 (1879): 295.

Van Slyck, A. Free to all: Carnegie libraries and American culture, 1890-1920 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1995).

Van Slyck, A, ‘The utmost amount of effectiv [sic] accommodation’:Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 50 (4) (December 1991), pp. 378-379.

Wall, J., Andrew Carnegie (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).

Walser, L., Public libraries across the country are ready for their next chapter, Preservation Magazine (Winter 2018),

Wheeler, J.L. and Githens, A.M. 1941. The American Public Library Building. New York: Scribner’s Sons.

Wiegand, W., ‘An established institution’: the Morris Public Library of Morris, Illinois, 1913-1953, Journal of Illinois History, 13 (4) (Winter 2010), pp. 265-288.

Wiegand, W., Main street public library: community places and reading spaces in the rural heartland, 1876-1956 (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2011).

Wiegand, W., Part of our lives: a people’s history of the American public library (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Williamson, W., William Frederick Poole and the modern library movement (New York and London: Columbia University press, 1963).

Wilmeson, F. 1890. Andrew Carnegie’s Gift. Pittsburgh Bulletin 1890, month/day unknown p. 6. In series II. Files on Microfilm, ca.1886–1977 (107 reels) II.A.1.a. Free Public Library Buildings. reel 25: Allegheny. Carnegie Corporation of New York Records. Columbia University Libraries Rare Book and Manuscript Library.

Yust, W., Follies in library planning, Library Journal, 51 (18) (15 October 1926), pp. 901-904.

Archival Sources:

Files relating to Library Building Grants by Mr Carnegie – prior to the formation of the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. National Archives of Scotland. GD281/3.

Pennsylvania Room, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Oakland Branch.

Series II. Microfilm ca.1886–1977II.A.1 Libraries Reel 36. Carnegie Corporation of New York. Columbia University Libraries Rare Book and Manuscript Library.

Carnegie Corporation of New York. Columbia University Libraries Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Series VIII. Printed Material A.3, No.1 Vol 48

Miller, D.R. 1943. Carnegie Grants for Library Buildings 1890–1917 a List of Library Buildings, Public and Academic Erected with Funds Provided by Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Corporation of New York. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Series VIII. Printed Material A.3, No.1 Vol 48 Miscellaneous Pamphlets. Carnegie Corporation of New York. Columbia University Libraries Rare Book and Manuscript Library.